Precarious 30ies

Here we are again at 3 in the morning, Copenhagen.

A couple of days ago, my colleague Ester Barinaga invited me to participate as an “expert” to a panel discussion on the precariat. She runs a excellent course on Social Entrepreneurship on the MSc on Entrepreneurship and Innovation (OIE) at CBS. The students were supposed to give a 3 minute pitch on possible ventures tackling the problem of precariat in the different forms presented by Guy Standing in his recent book: migrant, industrial and highly educated precariat.

I would be a representative of the highly educated, and, as it has been almost immediately pointed out, I am a “luxury” precarious. The reason being that even though I don’t know where I will land in one year, I am “only” 30, I have a PhD, solid brands on my CV and a good salary. The educated precariat is a group constituted by those who have an university degree or higher but find employment only as freelance or through short term contracts. In short, these people face an ever volatile work environment resulting from disruptions brought about by the Internet and the global financial crisis. According to Standing most modern jobs are primarily salary based, but have been deprived of non-monetary benefits that once used to be the norm. Further, precariat as a condition is much larger than work – it encompasses issues that span from financial planning, mobility, motivation, private relationships, and emotional stability. Some of my friends who have long-term contracts are still living in precarious conditions because they do not make enough money to be able to get a mortgage nor feel safe to plan to have a baby. This is particularly relevant for big Italian cities, like Milan, where people work long hours for generally low salaries compared to same positions in other big European cities, while prices (and rents) remain pretty high. Because of the precarious condition a whole generation lives with the inability of planning for its own future… and while some men may suffer from this too, this is hitting young women especially hard, as they are the ones who have to measure their choices with their declining fertility.

While preparing myself for the workshop I have been reaching out to friends and acquaintances – most of my peers from generation Y – who live in different aspects of the precariat. These people have always been in this work condition, so they don’t necessarily know that they are precarious. The topic is highly complex and would require much longer analysis and thought from my part. However, I want to share some insights that  emerged from these conversations and from the panel discussion with the students, even though they don’t necessarily make the puzzle easier to solve.

  1. Several people who have a precarious job would not trade their position for a stable one with secure benefits and paycheck because this would mean for them to do something they don’t like – i.e. working at the post office instead of being a screenwriter. Similarly, some people with very highly paid finance or corporate jobs decide to quit because they want to engage in more dynamic activities, instead of performing predictable tasks. To be clear, these are mostly men without family/stable relationships. It is safe to say that this cohort is not to be considered precarious because they are not suffering from this situation, but  by accepting several aspect of the precariat, they contribute to its endurance. Also this makes it more difficult to clearly define the boundaries of precarious jobs and design appropriate policies accordingly.
  2. The precariat deepens the divide across generations. Speciafically between millennials (people in their mid 20s and 30s) and older people from generation X (late baby boomers). First, people who are not precarious often do not understand what it means to be in this condition so they are not always able to help. On the other hand, people in precarious jobs often see their older colleagues with stable jobs as less qualified and more privileged, which creates stress and strive within organizations. Second, several young people end up relying on their parents/families in order to maintain the lifestyle they have been raised on, or sometimes just to be able to make a living. This creates frustration. As a result, some members of the precariat see inheritance as a light at the end of the tunnel, but are also concerned by the ethic issues that come with it.
  3. The OIE pitches were quite promising – students generally presented ventures of various kind: intermediaries that would facilitate the access to the job market for students and refugees; event organizers aiming to increase the interaction among precarious workers; providers of platforms for freelancers to share office space and other resources etc…the most interesting ideas however focused on a) education; b) communication – especially across the different categories of precariat.

Education:  The panel discussion highlighted the problem of skills. There is an increasing gap between graduate education and workplace requirements. Some of it is due to the fast-changing technology and need to continuously update the training of employees. On the other hand, most students choose university without a clear idea of the range of jobs they will be able to access with their degree or have only vague ideas about what the job they are training for is going to be like on a daily basis.

Communication: A problem related to the precariat is the lack of interaction across precarious groups. Different categories of precarious are relegated to their own “bubble”; as they have different lifestyles, different needs, they seldom get in contact with each other, often vote for different political groups. A further challenge is that people who are precarious may not be aware of it. When students enter the job market they are not always well informed on what they should be expecting from their employer. Recent graduates increasingly accept to work as interns for free. They are promised to be rewarded with “experience” but this is not a sure deal and they may end up with quite flat learning curves.

More on the topic in this recent piece.





Unicorns have become a symbol of this decade. Perhaps more boldly, unicorns are a symbol of the new teenage generation (Gen-Z).

Few weeks ago, I came across this interesting blog post on unicorns and started researching more on the topic.

As several “megatrends“, these multicolored horses with a frontal horn have lately surfaced as viral web and social media phenomenon. Yet, they are nothing new. Mythological creatures similar to unicorns have been around since antiquity. Eventually, they came back to the physical world as inspiring theme for plentiful merchandise, from phone covers, to yoga outfits, kids-shoes, hair-dyes to conclude with toilet stools. The European fashion retailer Motivi has launched a popular Unicorn line. Apple has introduced an unicorn emoji that immediately went viral.  Squattypotty a toilet stool distributor has managed to successfully market its product using the image of a Unicorn potting – through what has been defined as the “greatest viral ad in Internet history” with over 31 million views on Youtube. Recently Starbucks has used the unicorn image to market a over-sugary best-selling limited-edition Frappuccino. Since its launch the #unicornfrappuccino hashtag reached 158,932 posts on Instagram and was widely discussed on Twitter and Facebook.


After stumbling upon so many unicorn references, I realized that there was something to this that involved too many questions I was not able to answer on my own. Frankly, this made me feel quite old. I felt the world was running on something that I could not easily relate to. So, I set the  goal of answering (or at least trying to) five questions on Unicorns .

  1. What are unicorns?
  2. Where do they come from?
  3. What do they stand for?
  4. What are the elements that contributed to this mania?
  5. And, what can we learn on today’s (business) world from looking at the Unicorn fad?

What are unicorns?

Unicorns are widely recognized as being mythical and legendary creatures represented as horse-like beasts with a single straight pointed and (often) spiraling horn projecting from their forehead. Since antiquity unicorns have been portrayed as magical creatures with distinctively positive powers such as healing sickness or rendering poisoned water potable.

In the new millennium the representation of the unicorn has become more precisely defined. The 21st century unicorn looks like a white horse with glimmering skin and spiraling glimmer horn and rainbow shades and often hair. The glitter and rainbow bits are typical of the new generation unicorn. (Although Rainbow Brite was a popular rainbow-hair horse cartoon in the 1980s, credit to David from GenX)

Other definitions:

  • In business jargon, “unicorns” are start-up companies valued at more than a billion USD, typically in the software or technology sector.
  • Allegedly among teenage boys, a unicorn is That girl that you can’t catch and Everyone has a unicorn. (I found this info in a random blog post so I need to double check this with some actual member of the teenager cohort).

Where do they come from?

It seems that the unicorn achieved global reach since ancient times. Representations of horned-horse-like creatures recurred with similar features in several civilizations. Unicorns were worshiped in Babylon. Accounts from ancient Greece (among which Aristotle) and Egypt mention a horned animal as part of Indian tradition. Animals with features akin to the unicorn are described in the Bible and included in Chinese mythology. Unicorns continued to be portrayed during the Middle Age as decorative elements in sculptures, paintings, furniture and architectures across all Europe and are mentioned by Marco Polo (probably referring to rhinos) and later on in Leonardo da Vinci’s chronicles. Finally, they are often used in heraldry, famously as the symbol of Scotland.

Probably on the wave of the unicorn mania, the North Korean news agency KCNA has communicated that Pyongyang archaeologists in  have unearthed an Unicorn’s lair.

What do they stand for? 

Unicorns are magical creatures, traditionally carrying strong positive and curative powers. However, in the new millennium the unicorn image has been enriched with new elements and nuances. Importantly, the term conveys different meanings depending on the demographics using it, but generally it keeps reflecting a connection with magic non-real world, beauty and purity. Sometimes stands as a synonym of rarity.

According to Quora the Unicorn Emoji is mostly used by teenagers (especially females but recently also some males, see below) to refer to beauty and cuteness deprived of sexual references. In other communities the unicorn is instead used to signal special features in sexual behavior. For instance in the gay community a unicorn is that person who “prefers developing platonic friendships before leaping into the sheets” and/or avoids to use dating apps to attract people interested in “old fashioned” in person interaction. In polyamorous relationships the unicorn is the single female involved with a couple. The British artist Spike Dennis has opened the Unicorn-Porn blog where he explores sexual references related to unicorn in the art world.

What are the elements that contributed to this mania?

Unicorns rose to the status of pop culture symbols as they are synthesis of values that resonate for current teenagers. First unicorns have a familiar appeal on people who were kids in the 2000s, as they remind of the My Little Pony toys. My Little Pony was launched with great success in the early 1980s especially in the USA and then revived on a global scale at the turn of the century. The product was initially targeting girls but related tv series and cartoons made it popular among (even adult) males as well, the so-call Brony community. Further, unicorns’ rainbow hair can be interpreted as a reference to the symbol of LGBTQ movement. All this well dovetails with gender fluidity which defines most members of Generation Z. Similarly, the unicorn has established so strongly on social media such as Instagram, as it is an ambassador of uniqueness, non-gendered and magical features. The magical element resonates particularly well with present day teenagers as they tend to spend a lot of time online where they have to establish their own identity, somehow detached from the physical world.

What can we learn on today’s world from the Unicorn fad?

What strikes me most about this mania is the actual power of the unicorn image. Indeed the mere association to the unicorn can augment the cuteness and gracefulness of any random object. Therefore, I suspect that the unicorn has become a sort of smoke-and-mirror marketing tool. Unicorns are so awesome and carry such a powerful identity relating to vast array of positive values like tolerance, grace, naivety and candor. This powerful image has a double source of legitimization.  First, the magic of the unicorn has atavic roots. It is historically reminiscent of a dreamworld far away from the bare and dull everyday reality. Second, the unicorn is strongly established on the web as viral phenomenon of “cuteness”. Unicorns are gracious, cute and sweet, even when they puke or poop. This is of high value for companies as this image can be used to reshape the common narrative and perception of a product as well as create a major buzz around a brand especially on the web. Starbucks Frappuccino was heavily criticized on social media for being unhealthy as it contained almost 60g of sugar as well as coloring additive. Yet, through the unicorn campaign Starbucks achieved its goal of  becoming viral on the web and promoting its whole range of products.  In other cases, the unicorn revealed a successful strategy to market products otherwise quite difficult to brand – i.e. the toilet stool mentioned above. Alternatively, the unicorn can be a trail-blazer to appeal segments of the market that might not be easily reachable by traditional strategies. For instance the company Firebox has created a gin called unicorn tears to be purchased for Father’s day.

To conclude, I am not a sociologist but I have the feeling that the unicorn incarnates aspects of the present world unseen before. We millennials are a transition group, the Internet world developed with us and hence we did not worry much about establishing an online identity. Members of Generation Z instead grew with the Internet as a constitutive part of their environment. Their world is more fluid, there are fewer categories, but the other side of the coin is the struggle to emerge from within the masses. Everyone is different, but how to be a unicorn?


Instagram as a modern archive

Instagram’s first post by co-founder Kevin Systrom on July 16 2010

Can we learn something from Instagram?

At a first sight the answer seems undoubtedly NO. Scrolling down in complete boredom I asked myself if it really is just about foodporn, stunning (filtered) landscapes and commodization of several things among which chiefly the female body. Considering that today the platform’s estimated value is of near US$ 1 billion – I see myself prompted to reject the idea that it is just that. Could it be that Instagram is a huge archive of people’s and organizations’ lives? Can we understand how businesses function out the information users provide? Can we write histories that go beyond the perspective of the single user?

People tend to keep their Instagram profile open in a way that potentially allows mapping their close networks – or more creepily “stalk” them. That is, while these networks are for the most part not explicit, they can be reconstructed by a close look at tags and long-term interaction such as comments and likes on the platform. Instagram stories makes this even easier because people will take videos of themselves while being with friends or working with colleagues and tag them directly. This indicates potential for research, which is not necessarily visible/accessible from big data.

What if it is possible to map specific networks of professionals (singers, designers, chefs, you name them…) and understand not just their marketing & communication strategies but also their patterns of innovation? For instance, in the case of the fashion industry I have the feeling this would be a highly possible exercise, due to the high presence of operators on the platform and their sort of frantic use of Instagram stories (more research would be needed to substantiate my guess). Alternatively, I recently saw an engaging Instagram story by the chef Jamie Oliver documenting his trip to Naples and surroundings, in search for ingredients and inspiration… Design studios and shops show their behind the scenes before fairs or new product introduction, despite their attempt to preserve the surprise effect.

Much scholarly research in communication and media has been looking at Twitter and Facebook feeds to draw conclusions on companies’ CSR policies. I wonder to what extent social media can be used as empirical material for research in business studies and social science? Could Instragram (potentially Instagram stories) provide relevant sources for analyzing the evolution not only of marketing campaigns, but also of dynamics that are more internal to companies? I see two major drawbacks, which nevertheless I still do not consider insurmountable hurdles to the purpose of collecting sources. First, Instagram is used (more or less consciously) as a marketing channel, and hence several people will tend to use it in a way that is biased to positive content, i.e. only post moments of joy and success. Second, the available sources in the form of Instagram posts and stories are in complete control of the user posting them as soon as they do not get screenshot by followers – this will result into a notification to the user who posted.

Having worked with business archives as well as semi-structured interviews in the past, the first problem does not really differ much to the usual challenges faced by researchers in the social sciences. Several, if not most of the sources we work with are fragmented, biased, meant for external use and communication and only accidentally or partially revealing inner dynamics. The world of social media runs fast requiring constant presence especially from those who want to maintain a strong follower base. This increases the room for insight – and sometimes error – in the user’s life. Further, it seems increasingly important for key Instagram personalities to manage the “social media pressure” and be “true to their followers,” thus show elements and mechanisms behind their private and professional life. This has been recently stressed by several key Instagram superstars such as Selena Gomez (more than 100 million followers), Gigi Hadid, Katy Perry and other more or less influential web personas. This attitude by the most followed users of course creates a standard that produces a “cascade effect,” setting the tone for how to behave on the platform, what to post, how to acquire more likes, create hype etc.

As for my second point: again I don’t see a major difference with archival material I consulted around the world. You subscribe to the archive and get access to listed material. You are allowed to take pictures, but often required to notify the material copied. For the rest you can always take notes. Same goes for the videos in Instagram stories, although (and this is a major and perhaps a really problematic issue) they are only accessible for 24h. As simple as that, difference is that material is not phisically stored in centralized locations such as archives by stays on the web. And I am not sure about the legal implications of doing research on material publicly available on social media, although I suspect it counts as newspapers and other openly published content.

Well… now that we have established that Instagram might be considered a modern, constantly flowing massive archive for written, visual and video content as much as Twitter and Facebook, let’s go back to what triggered this whole discussion: Is there research out there using this type of data and “micro approach” to map networks? if yes, what are the results? what is happening within these networks? More specifically, could this material provide threads on the way companies or professionals innovate?

Today I tried to have look at my school’s library directory and it seems that actually there’s not much published yet along the lines imagined above. But perhaps there’s some dissertation being written using similar data or new research in publications I did not screen. SO it definitely needs a more careful search…and I will get back to that soon.


I realized that I often find myself thinking about random topics that would deserve a deeper look and then I don’t do it because I am busy, hungry or it’s 3 in the morning and I need to sleep.

So this blog is a way to look into these random thoughts and see if they can help me to learn something new.